Author(s): Galili U, Chen ZC, Manches O, Plumas J, Preisler H
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Abstract This study describes a novel method for increasing the immunogenicity of autologous tumor vaccines in leukemia and lymphoma patients by exploiting the natural anti-Gal antibody for in situ targeting of the vaccinating cells to antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Incubation of leukemia or lymphoma cells with neuraminidase and recombinant alpha 1,3-galactosyltransferase results in the synthesis of many alpha-gal epitopes (Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc-R) on their cell membranes. Vaccination with such processed tumor cells results in the binding of the natural anti-Gal immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to these epitopes and opsonization of these cells for effective phagocytosis by APCs, such as dendritic cells and macrophages. These APCs may transport the vaccine to adjacent draining lymph nodes for subsequent effective processing and presentation of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) peptides to activate TAA-specific helper and cytotoxic T cells. Once the TAA-specific cytotoxic T cells are activated, they can leave the lymph node, circulate in the body, and seek metastatic cells expressing TAA to destroy them. Alternatively, activated helper T cells may provide the help required for B cells to produce antibodies to TAA on the leukemia or lymphoma cells. Because every patient receives his or her own TAA within the vaccinating cells, such vaccines are customized for the patient. These autologous tumor vaccines may be used as an adjuvant treatment that complements currently used treatment regimens by providing the immune system with an additional opportunity to be exposed effectively to autologous TAA.
This article was published in J Hematother Stem Cell Res
and referenced in Journal of Glycobiology