alexa Prevalence and predictors of depressive symptoms in older premenopausal women: the Harvard Study of Moods and Cycles.

Author(s): Harlow BL, Cohen LS, Otto MW, Spiegelman D, Cramer DW

Abstract Share this page

Abstract BACKGROUND: The Harvard Study of Moods and Cycles is a community-based cohort study designed to evaluate the relationship between major depression and changes in menstrual and ovarian function. METHODS: All women aged 36 to 44 years with a verifiable address from 7 Boston, Mass, metropolitan communities were selected from the Massachusetts Town Books. A self-administered questionnaire assessed demographic characteristics and menstrual history, depression history, and current depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D]) in 4161 women. RESULTS: We observed a score of 16 or more on the CES-D in 22.4\% of women surveyed, and 8.6\% scored 25 or more. Widowed, divorced, or separated women were twice as likely as married women to have depression scores greater than 16 (95\% confidence interval, 1.6-2.8), and smokers in the upper tertile of pack-years were 1.9 times more likely to have CES-D scores of 16 or more (95\% confidence interval, 1.5-2.3). Relative to nulliparous women, those with 1 or 2 children had a 30\% lower risk of historic mood disorder, and those with 3 or more children had an even greater reduction in risk (odds ratio, 0.4; 95\% confidence interval, 0.3-0.6). Menstrual cycle irregularities were largely unassociated with current or past depression. However, 5 of 8 premenstrual symptoms were significantly associated with CES-D scores of 16 or more. CONCLUSIONS: These findings corroborate the prevalence of depression reported by other community-based studies, and also support a relationship between depressive symptoms and marital status, cigarette smoking, nulliparity, and premenstrual symptoms.
This article was published in Arch Gen Psychiatry and referenced in

Relevant Expert PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Recommended Journals

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version