Author(s): Puthanakit T, Saksawad R, Bunupuradah T, Wittawatmongkol O, Chuanjaroen T,
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Low bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported among 10\%-54\% of HIV-infected adolescents in developed countries. We studied the prevalence and predictors of low BMD among HIV-infected Thai adolescents receiving antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of lumbar spine (L2-L4) BMD as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in Thai HIV-infected adolescents aged 12-20 years was performed. The BMD Z score was analyzed using age-matched healthy Thai children as a reference. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was performed. Osteopenia was defined as BMD Z score ≤ -2. RESULTS: From October 2010 to February 2011, 101 adolescents, 50\% male, with a median age of 14.3 (range: 13.0-15.7) years were enrolled. The median [interquartile range (IQR)] current CD4 T-cell count was 646 (506-796) cells per cubic millimeter and 90\% had plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies per milliliter. The mean BMD among HIV-infected adolescents and controls were 0.855 and 0.980 g/cm (P < 0.001). The median (IQR) L2-L4 spine BMD Z score was -1.0 (-1.9 to -0.1), of which 24\% had BMD Z score ≤ -2.0. The median (IQR) of 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 24.8 (20.0-31.4) ng/mL, of which 25\% had vitamin D level < 20 ng/mL. In multivariate analysis, the height for age Z score < -1.5 (adjusted odds ratio: 6.2; 95\% confidence interval: 2.2 to 17.7) and history of World Health Organization clinical stage 4 before antiretroviral therapy (adjusted odds ratio: 3.7; 95\% confidence interval: 1.3 to 10.7) were significantly associated with osteopenia. CONCLUSION: One fourth of HIV-infected Thai adolescents have osteopenia. Children with history of advanced-staging or having low height for age are at risk of osteopenia. Preventive measures to prevent osteopenia should be incorporated in routine care for these adolescents.
This article was published in J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr
and referenced in Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics