Author(s): Miruk A, Hagos A, Yacob HT, Asnake F, Basu AK
Abstract Share this page
Abstract Cross-sectional studies were conducted in tsetse and non-tsetse-controlled areas of the Southern Nation Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPRS) of Ethiopia to determine the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis as well as drug sensitivity tests on Trypanosoma congolense in both naturally and experimentally infected cattle and mice, respectively. A total trypanosome prevalence of 4.8\% (95\% CI: 1.8-7.5) and 20.4\% (95\% CI: 14-26.8) were recorded in the tsetse-controlled study area of Humbo district and the non-tsetse-controlled area of Mareka district, respectively, indicated statistically significant difference between the two areas (P<0.001). The mean PCV value for Humbo and Mareka was 26.2 (95\%: 25.7-26.7) and 22.7 (95\% CI: 22.1-23.3), respectively, which were also statistically significant (P<0.001). The prophylactic activity of isometamidium chloride (ISMM) was observed in Humbo on nine naturally positive zebu cattle. Breakthrough infections were recorded in (6/9) 66.7\% of the cases in less than 5 weeks. A qualitative assay on mice was conducted on two T. congolense isolates obtained from the breakthrough cases with ranges of doses of ISMM and diminazene diaceturate (DA). Thereafter the mice were followed for relapse infection. ISMM at doses 0.5-4 mg/kg body weight (bw) and DA at doses of 3.5-28 mg/kg bw failed completely to cure T. congolense infections in any of the mice. A quantitative assay on mice was conducted on four T. congolense isolates obtained from Mareka. The four isolates were pooled into two pools (Pool-1 and Pool-2) for the quantitative assay on mice. The pooled isolates were tested with the same trypanocidal drugs and ranges of doses as it was used for the qualitative assay on mice. The minimum curative dose (MCD) of ISMM that cleared T. congolense infected mice was 4 and 2mg/kg bw for Pool-1 and Pool-2, respectively, whereas MCD of DA was 28 and 14 mg/kg bw, in Pool-1 and Pool-2, respectively. Although cloned populations were not used to prove whether the observed resistance was at the individual level or not, the results show that there is resistance to both ISMM and DA; failure of the "sanative pair".
This article was published in Vet Parasitol
and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy