Author(s): Tadewos A, Addis Z, Ambachew H, Banerjee S, Tadewos A, Addis Z, Ambachew H, Banerjee S
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Data on lipid profile abnormalities among patients receiving highly active antiretroviral treatment in Ethiopia are very limited. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia and characteristics of lipid profiles among patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) using first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Southern Ethiopia. METHODS: This cross sectional comparative group study was conducted between March and May 2012, and included 113 HIV infected patients treated for a minimum of one year with first-line HAART regimens that included Efavirenz and Nevirapine (HAART group) and others 113 who had never received HAART (pre-HAART group). Serum lipid profiles were determined after overnight fasting and dyslipidemia was assessed according to the United State National Cholesterol Education program-III guideline. For statistical analysis Chi-square, student's t-test, and logistic regression were used using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20. RESULT: Ninety-three (82.3\%) of HAART and 87 (76.9\%) pre-HAART patients had at least one laboratory abnormality, which is compatible with a diagnosis of dyslipidemia. Total cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dl occurred in 43.4\% of HAART and 15.9\% pre-HAART patients (p=<0.0001), whereas HDL-cholesterol below 40 mg/dl occurred in 43.4\% and in 63.7\% respectively, (p=0.002). The LDL-cholesterol ≥ 130 mg/dl occurred in 33.6\% of HAART and 15\% pre-HAART patients (p=0.001), while triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dl occurred in 55.8\% and 31.0\% respectively, (p=0.001). Receiving of HAART was significantly and positively associated with raised total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. The adjusted odds ratio (95\% CI) of HAART-treated vs. pre-HAART was 3.80 (1.34-6.55) for total cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dl; 2.64 (1.31-5.32) for LDL- cholesterol ≥ 130 mg/dl and 2.50 (1.41-4.42) for triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl. CONCLUSION: Use of first-line antiretroviral therapy regimens that contain Efavirenz and Nevirapine were associated with raised total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides, an established atherogenic lipid profiles. Lipid profiles should be performed at baseline before commencement of antiretroviral therapy and then periodically through treatment follow-up to monitor any rising trends.
This article was published in AIDS Res Ther
and referenced in Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research