alexa Prevalence of efflux-mediated ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin resistance in recent clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its reversal by the efflux pump inhibitors 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine and phenylalanine-arginine-β-naphthylamide.


Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

Author(s): Sonnet P, Izard D, Mulli C

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Abstract To assess the prevalence of efflux-driven fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance in recent clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a worrisome and often hospital-acquired pathogen, 115 unique strains were collected over a 5-month period, of which 27 and 33 had decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (CIP) and levofloxacin (LVX), respectively. The MIC(50) (minimum inhibitory concentration for 50\% of the organisms) was 16 μg/mL for both FQs. The efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) phenylalanine-arginine-β-naphthylamide (PAβN) and 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine (NMP) were then used to evaluate their efficacy in reducing CIP and LVX MICs. NMP did not significantly modify CIP MICs, whilst PAβN resulted in MIC(50) values of 2 μg/mL and 0.125 μg/mL for CIP and LVX, respectively. With the addition of PAβN, susceptibility to CIP and LVX was recovered in 6 (22.2\%) and 31 (93.9\%) strains, respectively. The best combination to reverse FQ resistance in this set of strains was LVX with PAβN. The results of this study show that the effect of an EPI is not only dependent on the species on which it is used but also on the molecule associated with it. Therefore, the design of an EPI equally efficient on all resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) efflux pumps appears to be difficult and, from a practical point of view, if an EPI is developed for clinical use, the efficiency of its combination with a definite molecule should be assessed carefully against a wide range of clinical isolates to evaluate the real benefit of this combination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. This article was published in Int J Antimicrob Agents and referenced in Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

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