Author(s): Buhrmann RR, Quigley HA, Barron Y, West SK, Oliva MS,
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Abstract PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of glaucoma in an adult population in rural central Tanzania. METHODS: Six villages were randomly selected from eligible villages in the Kongwa district, and all residents more than 40 years of age were enumerated and invited to a comprehensive eye examination including presenting visual acuity, refraction, automated 40-point Dicon (San Diego, CA) suprathreshold screening field test, Tono-Pen (Bio-Rad, Inc., Boston, MA) intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, and standardized examination by an ophthalmologist of anterior segment, optic nerve head, and retina after pupil dilation. Gonioscopy and Glaucoma-Scope (Ophthalmic Imaging Systems, Sacramento, CA) optic disc imaging were performed on those with IOP higher than 23 mm Hg and cup-to-disc ratio (c/d) more than 0.6 and on a 20\% random sample of participants. RESULTS: Of 3641 eligible persons, 3268 (90\%) underwent ophthalmic examination. The prevalence of glaucoma of all types was 4.16\% (95\% confidence interval [CI] = 3.5, 4.9\%). Primary open-angle glaucoma (OAG) was diagnosed in 3.1\% (95\% CI = 2.5, 3.8\%), primary angle-closure glaucoma (ACG) in 0.59\% (95\% CI = 0.35, 0.91\%), and other forms of glaucoma in 0.49\%. The prevalence of glaucoma was found to be sensitive to changes in the diagnostic criteria. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of OAG in this group was similar to that of African-derived persons in the United States but less than in African-Caribbean populations. ACG was more prevalent in east Africans than suggested by anecdotal reports.
This article was published in Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology