Author(s): Kasimanickam RK, Ranjan A, Asokan GV, Kasimanickam VR, Kastelic JP
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Abstract Bacteria growing as adherent biofilms are difficult to treat and frequently develop resistance to antimicrobial agents. To counter biofilms, various approaches, including prevention of bacterial surface adherence, application of device applicators, and assimilation of antimicrobials in targeted drug delivery machinery, have been utilized. These methods are also combined to achieve synergistic bacterial killing. This review discusses various multimodal technologies, presents general concepts, and describes therapies relying on the principles of electrical energy, ultrasound, photodynamics, and targeted drug delivery for prevention and treatment of biofilms.
This article was published in Int J Nanomedicine
and referenced in Fungal Genomics & Biology