Author(s): Santiago C, Lim KH, Loh HS, Ting KN
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Formation of biofilm is known to enhance the virulence of methicillin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which is associated with persistent infections in hospital settings. The biofilm layer essentially forms a protective barrier encapsulating the bacterial colony and thus reduces the effectiveness of chemotherapeutics. We have isolated 9EA-FC-B bioactive fraction from Acalypha wilkesiana Müll. Arg. that reverses ampicillin resistant in MRSA through inhibition of the antibiotic resistant protein, penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a). In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of 9EA-FC-B on MRSA biofilm forming capacity. METHODS: Inhibition of biofilm production and microtiter attachment assays were employed to study the anti-biofilm activity of 9EA-FC-B, while latex agglutination test was performed to investigate the effect on PBP2a in the biofilm matrix. We also attempted to characterise the chemical components of the fraction using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and phytochemical analysis. RESULTS: Fraction 9EA-FC-B and ampicillin exhibited similar inhibitory effect on MRSA's biofilm production at their respective minimum inhibitory concentrations (81.56\% vs 84.49\%, respectively). However, the test fraction was more effective in suppressing cell surface attachment (90.85\%) compared to ampicillin (37.8\%). Interestingly, ampicillin enhanced the level PBP2a and in the contrary 9EA-FC-B attenuated the production of the resistant protein in the bioflim matrix. HPLC and phytochemical analysis revealed that 9EA-FC-B fraction is a complex mixture containing tannins, saponins, sterol/steroids, and glycosides. CONCLUSIONS: Bioactive fraction 9EA-FC-B inhibited the production of MRSA biofilm by preventing the initial cell-surface attachment and reducing the amount PBP2a in the matrix. PBP2a found in the biofilm matrix is believed to have a role in the development of virulence in MRSA.
This article was published in BMC Complement Altern Med
and referenced in Journal of Medical & Surgical Pathology