Author(s): Bouzidi H, Daudon M, Najjar MF
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Abstract Renal tubular acidosis are forms of metabolic acidosis characterized by an impairment of urinary acidification due to a lack of urine excretion of protons or loss of bicarbonates. Primary distal renal acidosis (dRTA) is characterized by hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis due to failure in proton excretion, variably severe nephrocalcinosis and/or nephrolithiasis associated with hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia. When the metabolic acidosis is compensated, dRTA can be diagnosed by the failure of urinary acidification after oral ammonium chloride or furosemide administration. dRTA is inherited as either an autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive trait. An autosomal dominant form results from a SLC4A1 gene mutation leading to dysfunction of the anionic exchanger type 1 (AE1). Otherwise, recessive forms are due to mutations of ATP6V1B1 gene encoding the B1-subunit of H+-ATPase expressed in the apical membrane of the alpha intercalated cells in collecting duct and in the cochlea. Those mutations lead to dRTA accompanied by sensorineural deafness. Also, mutations in ATP6V0A4 gene encode the accessory subunit a4 of the H+ATPase, leading to recessive forms of dRTA with preserved hearing or delayed signs of deafness. Molecular approach can identify mutations which are responsible for this pathology. The medical treatment is simple and involves an alkali load which allows curing the metabolic acidosis. Long-term outcome is usually good unless the patient's compliance is low or alkalizing treatment is insufficient.
This article was published in Ann Biol Clin (Paris)
and referenced in Journal of Clinical Case Reports