alexa Production of conjugated fatty acids by lactic acid bacteria.
Microbiology

Microbiology

Fermentation Technology

Author(s): Sakayu Shimizu, Satoshi Sugimoto

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Conjugated fatty acids have attracted much attention as a novel type of biologically beneficial functional lipid. Some isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduce carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis, and body fat. Considering the use of CLA for medicinal and nutraceutical purposes, a safe isomer-selective process is required. The introduction of biological reactions for CLA production could be an answer. We screened microbial reactions useful for CLA production, and found several unique reactions in lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria produced CLA from linoleic acid. The produced CLA comprised a mixture of cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoic acid (18:2) and trans-9,trans-11-18:2. Lactobacillus plantarum AKU 1009a was selected as a potential CLA producer. Using washed cells of L. plantarum AKU 1009a as a catalyst, CLA production from linoleic acid reached 40 mg/ml under the optimized conditions. The CLA-producing reaction was found to consist of two successive reactions, i.e., hydration of linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12-octadecenoic acid and dehydrating isomerization of the hydroxy fatty acid to CLA. On the basis of these results, the transformation of hydroxy fatty acids by lactic acid bacteria was investigated. Lactic acid bacteria transformed ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-cis-9-octadecenoic acid) to CLA (a mixture of cis-9,trans-11-18:2 and trans-9,trans-11-18:2). Castor oil, which is rich in the triacylglycerol form of ricinoleic acid, was also found to act as a substrate for CLA production by lactic acid bacteria with the aid of lipase-catalyzed triacylglycerol hydrolysis. L. plantarum AKU 1009a produced conjugated trienoic fatty acids from alpha- and gamma-linolenic acid. The trienoic fatty acids produced from alpha-linolenic acid were identified as cis-9,trans-11,cis-15-octadecatrienoic acid (18:3) and trans-9,trans-11,cis-15-18:3. Those produced from gamma-linolenic were cis-6,cis-9,trans-11-18:3 and cis-6,trans-9,trans-11-18:3. The conjugated trienoic fatty acids produced from alpha- and gamma-linolenic acid were further saturated by L. plantarum AKU 1009a to trans-10,cis-15-18:2 and cis-6,trans-10-18:2, respectively.

This article was published in Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering and referenced in Fermentation Technology

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