Author(s): Kinai E, Hanabusa H
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Abstract It became evident that tenofovir DF (TDF) causes a modest and gradual decline in GFR, however, the impact of long-term use of TDF on tubular function has not been fully evaluated. In 40 patients treated with TDF and 23 patients treated with other NRTIs, urine beta(2)-microglobulin (U-BMG), percentage tubular reabsorption of phosphate (\%TRP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum creatinine, and calculated GFR were prospectively measured for 96 weeks. In patients receiving TDF, median U-BMG rose from 188 microg/liter at baseline to 555 microg/liter at week 96 (p = 0.02), median \%TRP declined from 94\% at baseline to 90\% at week 96 (p = 0.002), median ALP ratio compared with baseline persistently increased from 1 to 1.278 at week 96 (p = 0.001), and serum creatinine showed significant but minimal change from 0.64 mg/dl to 0.74 mg/dl at week 96 (p = 0.02). The GFR level declined minimally but significantly in TDF-receiving patients (-17 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), whereas it did not change in other NRTI-receiving patients [+ 3 ml/min/1.73 m(2); mixed models analysis of variance (MMANOVA) p = 0.03 for overall change from baseline to week 96]. U-BMG, \%TRP, ALP, or serum creatinine did not change significantly in other NRTI-receiving patients during the observation period. In five patients with marked changes in U-BMG (>10,000 microg/liter) and \%TRP (<80\%), both U-BMG and \%TRP immediately recovered in all patients after discontinuing TDF, whereas GFR levels did not fully recover for 6 months in three patients. Prolonged treatment with TDF caused progressive renal tubular dysfunction as well as a modest decline in GFR. If U-BMG levels >10,000 microg/liter and \%TRP values <80\% are observed, discontinuing TDF may be beneficial.
This article was published in AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses
and referenced in Journal of Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics