Author(s): Foa EB, McLean CP, Capaldi S, Rosenfield D
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Abstract IMPORTANCE: Evidence-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have not been established for adolescents despite high prevalence of PTSD in this population. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of counselor-delivered prolonged exposure therapy compared with supportive counseling for adolescents with PTSD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A single-blind, randomized clinical trial of 61 adolescent girls with PTSD using a permuted block design. Counselors previously naive to prolonged exposure therapy provided the treatments in a community mental health clinic. Data collection lasted from February 2006 through March 2012. INTERVENTIONS: Participants received fourteen 60- to 90-minute sessions of prolonged exposure therapy (n = 31) or supportive counseling (n = 30). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: All outcomes were assessed before treatment, at mid-treatment, and after treatment and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome, PTSD symptom severity, was assessed by the Child PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview (range, 0-51; higher scores indicate greater severity). Secondary outcomes were presence or absence of PTSD diagnosis assessed by the DSM-IV Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children and functioning assessed by the Children's Global Assessment Scale (range, 1-100; higher scores indicate better functioning). Additional secondary measures, PTSD severity assessed by the Child PTSD Symptom Scale-Self-Report (range, 0-51; higher scores indicate greater severity) and depression severity assessed by the Children's Depression Inventory (range, 0-54; higher scores indicate greater severity), were also assessed weekly during treatment. RESULTS: Data were analyzed as intent to treat. During treatment, participants receiving prolonged exposure demonstrated greater improvement on the PTSD symptom severity scale (difference between treatments in improvement, 7.5; 95\% CI, 2.5-12.5; P < .001) and on all secondary outcomes (loss of PTSD diagnosis: difference, 29.3\%, 95\% CI, 20.2\%-41.2\%; P = .01; self-reported PTSD severity: difference, 6.2; 95\% CI, 1.2-11.2; P = .02; depression: difference, 4.9; 95\% CI, 1.6-8.2; P = .008; global functioning: difference, 10.1; 95\% CI, 3.4-16.8; P = .008). These treatment differences were maintained through the 12-month follow-up: for interviewer-assessed PTSD (difference, 6.0; 95\% CI, 1.6-10.4; P = .02), loss of PTSD diagnosis (difference, 31.1; 95\% CI, 14.7-34.8; P = .01), self-reported PTSD (difference, 9.3; 95\% CI, 1.2-16.5; P = .02), depression (difference, 7.2; 95\% CI, 1.4-13.0; P = .02), and global functioning (difference, 11.2; 95\% CI, 4.5-17.9; P = .01). CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Adolescents girls with sexual abuse-related PTSD experienced greater benefit from prolonged exposure therapy than from supportive counseling even when delivered by counselors who typically provide supportive counseling. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00417300.
This article was published in JAMA
and referenced in Journal of Child and Adolescent Behavior