Author(s): ElSayed ME, ElTaher ZH
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Abstract PURPOSE: The aim of the current study is to assess the response rate and toxicity profile in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer using brachytherapy (BT) boost following external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), concomitant with chemotherapy as a component of the neoadjuvant treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a prospective phase II study of neoadjuvant chemo-radiation therapy for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who presented to the department of radiation oncology, King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Seventeen patients had been included in the study. Radiation therapy was given as: phase I, 45 Gy/25 fractions/5 weeks of EBRT, followed by brachytherapy boost (within one week after the end of EBRT) using high dose rate iridium 192 (Ir192) aiming at 800 cGy given in 2 fractions (each 400 cGy) separated by 1 week. All patients received the same concomitant chemotherapy in the form of Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin. The clinical and pathological response rates, together with the toxicity profile were assessed. RESULTS: Seventeen patients had been studied; the majority (14; 82\%) were males, while 3 only (18\%) were females, their mean age was 57.4 years. All patients had low anterior resection (LAR). The clinical response rate, assessed by digital rectal examination+/-endoscopy examination 4 weeks after the end of EBRT and BT, revealed that complete clinical response (cCR) was noted in 3 patients (18\%), clinical partial response (cPR) in 14 patients (82\%); while the pathological response rate was: complete pathological response (pCR) in 8 patients (47\%), pathological partial response (pPR) in 9 patients (53\%). The toxicity profile showed that grade III radiation proctitis was seen in one patient (6\%), grade III dermatitis in 2 (12\%), while no patients developed grade III cystitis. For chemotherapy toxicities, three patients (18\%) developed grade III nausea and/or vomiting, 2 (12\%) developed grade III diarrhea. CONCLUSION: The use of high dose rate brachytherapy as a boost in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy setting in locally advanced rectal cancer is an acceptable modality with an appreciable clinical and pathological response rates as well as an acceptable toxicity profile.
This article was published in J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
and referenced in Journal of Integrative Oncology