Author(s): AbuRahma AF, Robinson PA, Saiedy S, Kahn JH, Boland JP
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Abstract PURPOSE: This study examines the long-term clinical outcome and the incidence of recurrent stenosis (> or = 50\%) after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) with primary closure (PC) versus vein patch closure (VPC), saphenous (SVP), and jugular vein (JVP) and polytetrafluoroethylene patch closure (PTFE-P). METHODS: A total of 399 CEAs were randomized into the following groups: 135 PC, 134 PTFE-P, and 130 VPC (SVP alternating with JVP). Postoperative duplex ultrasound scans were performed at 1, 6, and 12 months and every year thereafter. The mean follow-up was 30 months with a range of 1 to 62 months, and demographic characteristics were similar in all groups. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate the risk of restenosis and the stroke-free survival. RESULTS: The incidence of ipsilateral stroke was 5\% (seven of 135) for PC, 1\% (one of 134) for PTFE-P, and 0\% for VPC (PC vs VPC, p = 0.008; PC vs PTFE-P, p = 0.034). Seven strokes occurred in the perioperative period. All three groups had similar mortality rates. The cumulative stroke-free survival rate at 48 months was 82\% for PC, 84\% for PTFE-P, and 88\% for VPC (p < 0.01 for PC vs PTFE-P or VPC). PC had a higher incidence of recurrent stenosis and occlusion (34\%) than PTFE-P (2\%) and VPC (9\%) (SVP 9\%, JVP 8\%) (p < 0.001). PTFE-P had a lower recurrent stenosis rate than VPC (p < 0.045). Restenoses necessitating a redo CEA were also higher for PC (11\%) than for PTFE-P (1\%) and VPC (2\%) (p < 0.001). Women with PC had a higher recurrent stenosis rate than men (46\% vs 23\%, p = 0.008). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that freedom from recurrent stenosis at 48 months was 47\% for PC, 84\% for VPC, and 96\% for PTFE-P (p < 0.001). The SVP and JVP results were comparable. The mean operative diameter of the internal carotid artery was similar in patients with or without restenosis. Significantly more late internal carotid artery dilatations occurred in the VPC group compared with the PC group. CONCLUSIONS: Patch closure (VPC or PTFE-P) is less likely than PC to cause perioperative stroke. Patching was also superior in lowering the incidence of late recurrent stenoses, especially in women.
This article was published in J Vasc Surg
and referenced in Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals