alexa Prostaglandin and nitric oxide regulate TNF-alpha production during Trypanosoma cruzi infection.


Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology

Author(s): Borges MM, Kloetzel JK, Andrade HF Jr, Tadokoro CE, PingeFilho P,

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Abstract The mechanisms that control TNF-alpha production by macrophages during Trypanosoma cruzi infection are still unknown. Destruction of intracellular forms by cytokine activated macrophages is considered to be a major mechanism of parasite elimination. Although in vitro TNF-alpha contributes to enhanced parasite destruction by macrophages, previous work in vivo has shown that as the parasite burden increases, serum TNF-alpha levels decline. In this report we show that TNF-alpha production by peritoneal adherent cells is elevated at the initial phase of T. cruzi infection. As infection progresses TNF-alpha production decreases. The observed reduction is partly due to inhibition, largely exerted by endogenous PG and secondarily by NO. Inhibition of their synthesis partially restored the ability to produce high levels of TNF-alpha to macrophages upon stimulation by LPS. Neither endogenous IL-10 nor TGF-beta seem to be involved in the negative regulation of TNF-alpha production.
This article was published in Immunol Lett and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology

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