Author(s): Wang C, Sadovova N, Patterson TA, Zou X, Fu X,
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Abstract Ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, is used as a pediatric anesthetic for surgical procedures. Recent data suggest that anesthetic drugs may cause neurodegeneration during development. The purpose of this study was to determine the dose and temporal response of ketamine using newborn rat forebrain cultures and also to determine if co-administration of 7-nitroindazole, a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, could protect or reverse ketamine-induced cell death. Neural cells collected from the rat forebrain were incubated for 24h with 1, 10 or 20 microM ketamine alone or with ketamine plus 1, 5, 10 or 20 microM 7-nitroindazole. Ketamine (10 microM) caused an increase in DNA fragmentation and elevated immunoreactivity to nitrotyrosine, a marked reduction in the expression of the neuronal marker polysialic acid neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) and in mitochondrial metabolism, as well as an increased Bax/BCL-XL ratio. No significant effect was observed in the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Ketamine-induced neurotoxic effects were effectively blocked by 7-nitroindazole (10 microM). These data indicate a role for nitric oxide in the enhanced degeneration induced by ketamine in vitro and also suggest that blocking neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) may help reduce the risk of ketamine in pediatrics.
This article was published in Neurotoxicology
and referenced in Journal of Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics