Author(s): Kaushik M, , Sinha P, Jaiswal P, Mahendru S,
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Abstract Proteins as a biomolecule have been recognized as a "molecule with manifold biological functions". The functions not only include the structural, regulatory and transportation processes inside the body but also its capacity as an extremely specific catalyst for various biochemical reactions. Nature has been quite admirably using proteins as biocatalysts which are known as enzymes. Properties like higher reaction rate, good specificity, faster kinetics, production of lesser by-products and their non-hazardous nature make enzymes the most suitable targets for a process chemist to exploit. At the same time, limitations like a narrow range of substrates, requirement of coenzymes, lesser stability, smaller shelf-life, along with difficulties in procuring these enzymes, make this biocatalysis field quite challenging. For exploiting a broad range of applications related to therapeutics, biosensors, biotechnology, nanotechnology etc., de novo designing of proteins is of utmost importance. Enzymes with altered, specific and modified properties might be designed by utilizing the prior knowledge of structure and function of a protein with the help of computational modeling. Various protein engineering techniques like directed evolution, rational designing and immobilization strategies etc. have already been extensively used to address some of the issues. This review aims to update the repertoire of the advancements in the field of protein engineering, which can help in laying some guiding principles about designing, modifying and altering their usage for commercial industrial purposes. This possibility of effective and novel designing of peptides and proteins might further facilitate our understanding about the structure, function and folding patterns along with their inter-relationships. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
This article was published in J Mol Recognit
and referenced in Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques