alexa Proteomics: from basic research to diagnostic application. A review of requirements & needs.

Journal of Bioengineering and Bioelectronics

Author(s): Vitzthum F, Behrens F, Anderson NL, Shaw JH

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Abstract For several years proteomics research has been expected to lead to the finding of new markers that will translate into clinical tests applicable to samples such as serum, plasma and urine: so-called in vitro diagnostics (IVDs). Attempts to implement technologies applied in proteomics, in particular protein arrays and surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS), as IVD instruments have initiated constructive discussions on opportunities and challenges inherent in such a translation process also with respect to the use of multi-marker profiling approaches and pattern signatures in IVD. Taking into account the role that IVD plays in health care, we describe IVD requirements and needs. Subject to stringent costs versus benefit analyses, IVD has to provide reliable information about a person's condition, prognosis or risk to suffer a disease, thus supporting decisions on treatment or prevention. It is mandatory to fulfill requirements in routine IVD, including disease prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment monitoring or follow up among others. To fulfill IVD requirements, it is essential to (1) provide diagnostic tests that allow for definite and reliable diagnosis tied to a decision on interventions (prevention, treatment, or nontreatment), (2) meet stringent performance characteristics for each analyte (in particular test accuracy, including both precision of the measurement and trueness of the measurement), and (3) provide adequate diagnostic accuracy, i.e., diagnostic sensitivity and diagnostic specificity, determined by the desired positive and negative predictive values which depend on disease frequency. The fulfillment of essential IVD requirements is mandatory in the regulated environment of modern diagnostics. Addressing IVD needs at an early stage can support a timely and effective transition of findings and developments into routine diagnosis. IVD needs reflect features that are useful in clinical practice. This helps to generate acceptance and assists the implementation process. On the basis of IVD requirements and needs, we outline potential implications for clinical proteomics focused on applied research activities. This article was published in J Proteome Res and referenced in Journal of Bioengineering and Bioelectronics

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