Author(s): Lahmer G, Lotter M, Kreppner S, Fietkau R, Strnad V
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Abstract PURPOSE: To assess the overall clinical outcome of protocol-based image-guided salvage pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy for locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiotherapy failure particularly regarding feasibility and side effects. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighteen consecutive patients with locally recurrent prostate cancer (median age, 69 years) were treated during 2005-2011 with interstitial PDR brachytherapy (PDR-BT) as salvage brachytherapy after radiotherapy failure. The treatment schedule was PDR-BT two times with 30 Gy (pulse dose 0.6 Gy/h, 24 h per day) corresponding to a total dose of 60 Gy. Dose volume adaptation was performed with the aim of optimal coverage of the whole prostate (V100 > 95 \%) simultaneously respecting the protocol-based dose volume constraints for the urethra (D0.1 cc < 130 \%) and the rectum (D2 cc < 50-60 \%) taking into account the previous radiation therapy. Local relapse after radiotherapy (external beam irradiation, brachytherapy with J-125 seeds or combination) was confirmed mostly via choline-PET and increased PSA levels. The primary endpoint was treatment-related late toxicities--particularly proctitis, anal incontinence, cystitis, urinary incontinence, urinary frequency/urgency, and urinary retention according to the Common Toxicity Criteria. The secondary endpoint was PSA-recurrence-free survival. RESULTS: We registered urinary toxicities only. Grade 2 and grade 3 toxicities were observed in up to 11.1 \% (2/18) and 16.7 \% (3/18) of patients, respectively. The most frequent late-event grade 3 toxicity was urinary retention in 17 \% (3/18) of patients. No late gastrointestinal side effects occurred. The biochemical PSA-recurrence-free survival probability at 3 years was 57.1 \%. The overall survival at 3 years was 88.9 \%; 22 \% (4/18) of patients developed metastases. The median follow-up time for all patients after salvage BT was 21 months (range, 8-77 months). CONCLUSION: Salvage PDR-brachytherapy of the prostate following local failure after radiation therapy is a treatment option with a low rate of genitourinary side effects and no late gastrointestinal side effects. The treatment efficacy in the first 3 years is promising.
This article was published in Strahlenther Onkol
and referenced in Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy