Author(s): Tsujii K, Takagi T
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Abstract The binding of an anionic surfactant to a protein polypeptide has been studied by the proton magnetic resonance (PMR) technique to form a part of our studies on the principles of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Sodium 4-(p-butylphenyl) butane-1-sulfonate (CH3-(CH2)3-0-(CH2)4-SO3-Na+) was employed as an anionic surfactant, and reduced and carbosyamidomethylated (RCAM) bovine serum albumin as a typical protein polypeptide. The binding isotherm of the surfactant to RCAM bovine serum albumin was similar to that of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The surfactant could replace SDS in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis without affecting the wellknown mode of spearation of protein bands. These results gave a sound basis for the assumption that the investigation of the complex between a surfactant with a benzene ring and RCAM bovine serum albumin would provide useful knowledge concerning the principles of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Aggregation of the aromatic surfactant necessarily brings benzene rings together. A benzene ring is a strong source of the ring current effect on chemical shifts in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Chemical shifts of the surfactant in NMR are, therefore, sensitive to whether the surfactant molecules are single-molecularly dissolved or aggregated. Full advantage was taken of the above fact in the present PMR study of the binding of the surfactant to RCAM bovine serum albumin. The chemical shifts of the phenyl and methyl protons both for the single-molecular and micellar aggregated states were estimated from measurements of the shifts as a function of the surfactant concentration. They shifted to a higher magnetic field on micelle formation, due to the increase of the ring current effect. Corresponding measurements for the complex between the surfactant and RCAM bovine serum albumin gave estimates of the chemical shifts of the phenyl and methyl groups of the surfactant bound to the protein polypeptide. They were found to shift to a magnetic field somewhat higher than that for the micellar state throughout the concentration range of the surfactant examined. These results strongly suggest that the surfactant molecules bind to the protein polypeptide in the form of micelle-like clusters, and that PMR of the groups are further influenced by the diagmagnetic effect of the protein polypeptide present as a core. No appreciable change in the mode of binding, corresponding to the steep increase in the amount of binding in the binding isotherm, was observed from the PMR studies. Taking the observed similarity between SDS and the aromatic surfactant in the binding and the gel electrophoresis into consideration, the present results strongly suggest that SDS also binds to protein polypeptides in the form of micelle-like clusters under the conditions of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoreses, and support our "necklace model".
This article was published in J Biochem
and referenced in Journal of Membrane Science & Technology