alexa PS-341 (bortezomib) induces lysosomal cathepsin B release and a caspase-2-dependent mitochondrial permeabilization and apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells.
Genetics & Molecular Biology

Genetics & Molecular Biology

Fungal Genomics & Biology

Author(s): Yeung BH, Huang DC, Sinicrope FA

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Abstract PS-341 (bortezomib) is a potent and reversible proteosome inhibitor that functions to degrade intracellular polyubiquitinated proteins. PS-341 induces apoptosis and has shown broad antitumor activity with selectivity for transformed cells. We studied the effect of PS-341 on lysosomal and mitochondrial permeabilization, including the role of caspase-2 activation in apoptosis induction in the BxPC-3 human pancreatic carcinoma cell line. PS-341 induced a dose-dependent apoptosis in association with reactive oxygen species generation and cleavage of caspase-2 to its 33- and 14-kDa fragments. PS-341 disrupted lysosomes with redistribution of cathepsin B to the cytosol, as shown using fluorescence confocal microscopy, that was blocked by the free radical scavenger tiron but not by a caspase-2 inhibitor (benzyloxycarbonyl (Z)-VDVAD-fluoromethyl ketone (FMK)). PS-341-induced caspase-2 activation was attenuated by a selective pharmacological inhibitor of cathepsin B (R-3032), suggesting that cathepsin B release occurs upstream of caspase-2. PS-341-induced mitochondrial depolarization was attenuated by Z-VDVAD-FMK, tiron, and an inhibitor of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (bongkrekic acid). Regulation of mitochondrial permeability by caspase-2 was confirmed using caspase-2 small interfering RNA. PS-341-induced cytochrome c release and phosphatidylserine externalization were attenuated by Z-VDVAD-FMK and partially by R-3032. PS-341 activated the BH3-only proteins Bik and Bim and down-regulated Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL mRNA and protein expression. Taken together, PS-341 induces lysosomal cathepsin B redistribution upstream of caspase-2. Caspase-2 activation regulates PS-341-induced mitochondrial depolarization and apoptosis, suggesting that caspase-2 can serve as a link between lysosomal and mitochondrial permeabilization. This article was published in J Biol Chem and referenced in Fungal Genomics & Biology

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