Author(s): Ngeow YK, Mitzner W
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Abstract In this investigation we have studied the effect of increments of pulmonary edema on pulmonary hemodynamics, and physiological and hemodynamic shunt in an isolated lung preparation. Hemodynamic shunt was defined by the slope of the relationship between pulmonary arterial and airway pressures; when the slope decreases, there is a greater degree of shunt. Cardiovascular changes were analyzed using a Starling resistor model of the pulmonary circulation where the effective downstream pressure to flow as seen from the pulmonary artery exceeds the pulmonary venous outflow pressure. This effective downstream pressure is referred to as the critical pressure (Pc), and at low lung inflation the locus of this critical pressure is in extra-alveolar vessels. With 3-4 h of progressive edema to an average of 185\% initial lobe weight we found a progressive rise in pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa) from 12.1 to 21.5 cmH2O. About one-third of this increase in Ppa resulted from an increased Pc and the remainder resulted from an increased resistance upstream from the locus of Pc. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the interstitial accumulation of fluid creates enough of an increase in interstitial pressure to compress extra-alveolar vessels. There was no significant correlation between the amount of edema and the measured physiologic shunt, but the hemodynamic shunt showed a highly significant correlation. The hemodynamic shunt theoretically measures the extent of obstructed airways and may be a useful index of the degree of pulmonary edema.
This article was published in J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Cardiology