Author(s): Itagaki E, Wakabayashi T, Hatta T
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Abstract The inducible 3-ketosteroid-delta 1-dehydrogenase of Nocardia corallina which catalyzes the introduction of a double bond into the position of carbon 1 and 2 of ring A of 3-ketosteroid has been obtained in four steps with a 50\% yield and 360-fold purification. The enzyme is homogeneous as judged by SDS-gel electrophoresis and is a monomeric protein with a molecular weight of 60,500. The isoelectric point of the enzyme is about 3.1. The enzyme contains 1 mol of flavin adenine dinucleotide per mol of protein, and has a typical flavoprotein absorption spectrum with maxima of 458, 362 and 268 nm. The enzyme is very stable in the absence of added cofactors, and catalyzes the dehydrogenation of delta 4-3-ketosteroids in the presence of phenazine methosulfate, which acts as an excellent electron acceptor. Potassium ferricyanide and cytochrome c did not act as electron acceptors. The delta 1-dehydrogenation was also stimulated by molecular oxygen with stoichiometric production of hydrogen peroxide and delta 1,4-3-ketosteroid. The optimum pH is 10 for dehydrogenation using phenazine methosulfate, and is between 8.5 and 10 for the oxidase reaction. The enzyme oxidizes a wide variety of 3-ketosteroids, but not 3 beta-hydroxysteroids. 3-Ketosteroids having an 11 alpha- or 11 beta-hydroxyl group were oxidized at slow rates. The purified enzyme catalyzes efficiently aromatization of the A-ring of 19-nortestosterone and 19-norandrostenedione to produce estradiol and estrone. 19-Hydroxytestosterone, 19-hydroxyandrostenedion and 19-oxotestosterone were converted to the respective phenolic steroids with cleavage of the C10 side-chain. Activities of 3-ketosteroid-delta 4-dehydrogenase, delta 5-3-ketosteroid-4,5-isomerase, 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were not observed in the purified preparations. Properties of this novel flavoprotein enzyme are discussed.
This article was published in Biochim Biophys Acta
and referenced in Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation