Author(s): Takada Y, Skidgel RA, Erds EG
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Abstract Human urinary active kallikrein and prokallikrein were separated on DEAE-cellulose and octyl-Sepharose columns and both purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography, gel filtration and hydrophobic h.p.l.c. Prokallikrein was monitored during purification by trypsin activation followed by determination of both amidase and kininogenase activity. After trypsin activation, purified prokallikrein had a specific kininogenase activity of 39.4 micrograms of bradykinin equivalent/min per mg and amidase activity of 16.5 mumol/min per mg with D-Val-Leu-Arg-7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin. Purified active kallikrein had a specific activity of 47 micrograms of bradykinin/min per mg. The molecular mass of prokallikrein was 48 kDa on electrophoresis and 53 kDa on gel filtration whereas active kallikrein gave values of 46 kDa and 53 kDa respectively. Antisera to active and prokallikrein were obtained. In double immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis, antiserum to active kallikrein reacted with active and pro-kallikrein. Antiserum to prokallikrein contained antibodies to determinants not found in active kallikrein, presumably due to the presence of the activation peptide in the proenzyme. Human prokallikrein can be activated by thermolysin, trypsin and human plasma kallikrein. Activation of 50\% of the prokallikrein (1.35 microM) was achieved in 30 min with 25 nM-thermolysin, 78 nM-trypsin or 180 nM-human plasma kallikrein. Thus thermolysin was the most effective activator. Thermolysin activated prokallikrein by releasing active kallikrein with N-terminal Ile1-Val2. Thus human tissue (glandular) prokallikrein can be activated by two types of enzymes: serine proteinases, which cleave at the C-terminus of basic amino acids, and by a metalloproteinase that cleaves at the N-terminus of hydrophobic amino acids.
This article was published in Biochem J
and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism