Author(s): Sundaram U, Hassanain H, Suntres Z, Yu JG, Cooke HJ,
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Abstract A rabbit model of chronic ileitis has helped decipher the mechanism of alteration of multiple electrolyte and nutrient malabsorptions in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study examined alterations in the adenosine A1/A3 receptor, oxidant, antioxidant, and immune-inflammatory pathways in chronic ileitis. Chronic ileal inflammation was induced 13-15 days after infection with 10,000 Eimeria magna oocytes. Quantitative analysis in 16 rabbits was done for oxidants, antioxidants, A1 and A3 transcripts, transport, injury, and inflammatory mediators. Inflamed gut had villus blunting, crypt hyperplasia and fusion, and immune cell infiltration. Alkaline phosphatase and Na-glucose co-transport were reduced by 78\% (P=0.001) and 89\% (P=0.001), respectively. Real-time fluorescence monitoring (TaqMan)-polymerase chain reaction revealed a transcriptional up-regulation of 1.34-fold for A1 and 5.40-fold for A3 receptors in inflamed gut. Lipid peroxidation increased in the mucosa (78\%, P=0.012), longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus (118\%, P=0.042), and plasma (104\%, P=0.001). Mucosal antioxidants were altered by inflammation: reductions occurred in superoxide dismutase (32\%, P=0.001) and catalase (43\%, P=0.001), whereas increases occurred in glutathione (75\%, P=0.0271) and glutathione reductase (86\%, P=0.0007). Oxidant enzyme activities were elevated by 21\% for xanthine oxidase (P=0.004), 172\% for chloramine (P=0.022), 47\% for gelatinase (P=0.041), and 190\% for myeloperoxidase (P=0.002). Mast cell tryptase increased by 79\% (P=0.006). Increases occurred in the plasma concentration of leukotriene B(4) (13-fold, P=0.003), thromboxane B(2) (61-fold, P=0.018), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (9-fold, P=0.002). In conclusion, chronic ileitis and tissue injury are associated with discrete alterations in complex multi-level oxidant, antioxidant, and immune inflammatory components. The rabbit ileitis model is a suitable model to gain further insight into chronic inflammation and IBD. We hypothesize that adenosine A3 and A1 receptors may provide a novel target for therapy in chronic ileitis and perhaps IBD.
This article was published in Biochem Pharmacol
and referenced in Journal of Gastrointestinal & Digestive System