Author(s): Paudel B, Bhattarai HD, Koh HY, Lee SG, Han SJ,
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Abstract Ramalin (γ-glutamyl-N'-(2-hydroxyphenyl)hydrazide), a novel compound, was isolated from the methanol-water extract of the Antarctic lichen Ramalina terebrata by several chromatographic methods. The molecular structure of ramalin was determined by spectroscopic analysis. The experimental data showed that ramalin was five times more potent than commercial butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) in scavenging 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydazil (DPPH) free radicals, 27 times more potent in scavenging 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid free radicals (ABTS(+)) than the vitamin E analogue, trolox, and 2.5 times more potent than BHT in reducing Fe(3+) to Fe(2+) ions. Similarly, ramalin was 1.2 times more potent than ascorbic acid in scavenging superoxide radicals and 1.25 times more potent than commercial kojic acid in inhibiting tyrosinase enzyme activity, which ultimately leads to whitening of skin cells. Ramalin showed no or very little cytotoxicity in human keratinocyte and fibroblast cells at its antioxidant concentration. Furthermore, ramalin was assessed to determine its antioxidant activity in vivo. One microgram per milliliter ramalin significantly reduced the released nitric oxide (NO) and 0.125 μg/ml ramalin reduced the produced hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-stimulated murine macrophage Raw264.7 cells. Considering all the data together, ramalin can be a strong therapeutic candidate for controlling oxidative stress in cells. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Phytomedicine
and referenced in Medicinal Chemistry