Author(s): HonorBouakline S, Vincensini JP, Giacuzzo V, Lagrange PH, Herrmann JL
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Abstract In cases of suspected extrapulmonary tuberculosis, rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis is of prime importance, since traditional techniques of detecting acid-fast bacilli have limitations. The major difficulty with mycobacteria is achieving optimal cell lysis. Buffers used in commercial kits do not allow this complete lysis in a number of clinical specimens. A comparison of two sample preparation methods, pretreatment with proteinase K (PK-Roche) and complete DNA purification (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide [CTAB]-Roche), was conducted on 144 extrapulmonary specimens collected from 120 patients to evaluate the impact on the Cobas-Amplicor method. Thirty patients were diagnosed with tuberculosis, with 15 patients culture positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Amplification and detection of the amplicons were impaired by a high number of inhibitory specimens (39 to 52\%). CTAB-Roche allowed the detection of more culture-positive specimens by PCR than PK-Roche. Comparison with the final diagnoses of tuberculosis confirmed that CTAB-Roche produced the best sensitivity (53.8\%) compared to culture (43.3\%), PK-Roche (16\%), and smear (13\%). However, the specificity of the PCR assay with CTAB-Roche-extracted material was always lower (78.8\%) than those with culture (100\%) and PK-Roche (96.5\%). False-positive specimens were lung biopsy material, lymph node biopsy material and aspirate, or bone marrow aspirate, mainly from immunocompromised patients. Despite the efficiency of complete DNA extraction for the rapid diagnosis by PCR of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, the false-positive results challenge our understanding of PCR results.
This article was published in J Clin Microbiol
and referenced in Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology