Author(s): Stadtman ER, Berlett BS
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Abstract Highly reactive oxygen species that are formed during normal metabolism and under conditions of oxidative stress are able to oxidize proteins or convert lipid and carbohydrate derivatives to compounds that react with functional groups on proteins. Among other changes, these ROS-mediated reactions lead to the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives, which serves as a marker of ROS-mediated protein damage. On the basis of this marker, it is established that oxidatively damaged protein is associated with aging and some diseases. The accumulation of oxidatively damaged protein reflects the balance among a myriad of factors that govern the rates of ROS generation and the rate at which damaged protein is degraded. Peroxynitrite, which is formed under normal physiological conditions, is able to oxidize methionine residues in proteins and to nitrate tyrosine residues; however, its ability to do so is dependent on the availability of CO2, which stimulates the nitration of tyrosine residues but inhibits the oxidation of methionine residues. Nitration of tyrosine residues may contribute to peroxynitrite toxicity, as nitration precludes the phosphorylation or nucleotidylation of tyrosine residues and thereby seriously compromises one of the most important mechanisms of cellular regulation and signal transduction.
This article was published in Drug Metab Rev
and referenced in Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta