Author(s): Xu RN, Fan L, Rieser MJ, ElShourbagy TA
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Abstract Liquid chromatography linked to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has played an important role in pharmacokinetics and metabolism studies at various drug development stages since its introduction to the pharmaceutical industry. This article reviews the most recent advances in sample preparation, separation, and the mass spectrometric aspects of high-throughput quantitative bioanalysis of drug and metabolites in biological matrices. Newly introduced techniques such as ultra-performance liquid chromatography with small particles (sub-2 microm) and monolithic chromatography offer improvements in speed, resolution and sensitivity compared to conventional chromatographic techniques. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) on silica columns with low aqueous/high organic mobile phase is emerging as a valuable supplement to the reversed-phase LC-MS/MS. Sample preparation formatted to 96-well plates has allowed for semi-automation of off-line sample preparation techniques, significantly impacting throughput. On-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) utilizing column-switching techniques is rapidly gaining acceptance in bioanalytical applications to reduce both time and labor required to produce bioanalytical results. Extraction sorbents for on-line SPE extend to an array of media including large particles for turbulent flow chromatography, restricted access materials (RAM), monolithic materials, and disposable cartridges utilizing traditional packings such as those used in Spark Holland systems. In the end, this paper also discusses recent studies of matrix effect in LC-MS/MS analysis and how to reduce/eliminate matrix effect in method development and validation.
This article was published in J Pharm Biomed Anal
and referenced in Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta