Author(s): Schaub RG
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Abstract Hemophilia is a family of rare bleeding disorders. The two primary types, hemophilia A and hemophilia B, are caused by recessive X-chromosome linked mutations that result in deficiency of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) or factor IX (FIX), respectively. Clinically, hemophilia is manifested by spontaneous bleeding, particularly into the joints (haemarthrosis) and soft tissue, and excessive bleeding following trauma or surgery. The total overall number of hemophilia patients worldwide is approximately 400,000, however only about 100,000 of these individuals are treated. The first treatment of hemophilia was initiated when it was determined that the clotting deficiency could be corrected by a plasma fraction taken from normal blood. The discovery of factor VIII enrichment by cryoprecipitation of plasma opened a new era of therapy which eventually led to the production of factor concentrates and the subsequent development of highly purified forms of plasma factors. The most significant improvements have been the availability of recombinant forms of factors VIII and IX. Unfortunately, recombinant factors still retain some of the limitations of plasma concentrates. These limitations include development of antibody responses in patients and the relatively short half-life of the molecules requiring frequent injection to maintain effective concentration. Treatment beyond replacement of native factors has been tried. They include the development of modified factor VIII and IX molecules with improved potency, stability and circulating half-life and enhancement of a prothrombotic responses and/or stabilization of coagulation factors via inhibition of key negative regulatory pathways. These approaches will be reviewed in this commentary. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Biochem Pharmacol
and referenced in Journal of Blood Disorders & Transfusion