Author(s): Ola MS, Nawaz MI, Siddiquei MM, AlAmro S, Abu ElAsrar AM
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Abstract One of the major complications in patients with diabetes is diabetic retinopathy (DR), a leading cause of blindness worldwide. It takes several years before any clinical signs of retinopathy appear in diabetic patients, which gives an ample opportunity for scientists to uncover biochemical and molecular mechanism implicated early in the development and progression of the disease. During the past few decades, research progress has been made in investigating the pathophysiology of the disease; however, due to nonavailability of human retinal samples at different stages of the disease and also due to lack of a proper animal model of DR, the exact molecular mechanism has not been elucidated, making therapeutic a difficult task. In this review article, we have discussed a number of diabetes-induced metabolites such as glucose, lipids, amino acids, and other related factors and molecules that are implicated in the pathophysiology of the DR. Furthermore, we have highlighted neurodegeneration and regulation of neurotrophic factors, being recognized as early events that may be involved in the pathology of the disease in the course of DR. An understanding of the biochemical and molecular changes especially early in the diabetic retina may lead to new and effective therapies towards prevention and amelioration of DR, which is important for the millions of individuals who already have or are likely to develop the disease before a cure becomes available. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article was published in J Diabetes Complications
and referenced in Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome