Author(s): Svennerholm AM, Lundgren A
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Abstract Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli(ETEC) is the most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in children in Africa, Asia and Latin America and in travelers to these regions. Despite this, no effective vaccine for ETEC is available. ETEC causes disease by colonizing the small intestine with colonization factors, most of which are fimbriae, and production of heat-labile and/or heat-stable enterotoxins. Antibodies against heat-labile enterotoxin and the colonization factors have been shown to be protective, and local immunity in the gut seems to be of prime importance for protection. Hence, several inactivated and live candidate ETEC vaccines consisting of toxin antigens, alone or together with colonization factors, have been evaluated in clinical trials. In this review, the authors describe ETEC vaccine development in progress and the rationale for constructing different types of vaccines. They also discuss possibilities of enhancing immune responses to candidate ETEC vaccines, particularly in children.
This article was published in Expert Rev Vaccines
and referenced in Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination