Author(s): Esteves SC, Glina S
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: Analyze whether testicular histologic patterns from a group of azoospermic men with varicocele is predictive of treatment outcome after subinguinal microsurgical varicocele repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen azoospermic men underwent bilateral open single testis biopsy and microsurgical subinguinal repair of clinical varicoceles. RESULTS: Histopathology of testicular biopsies revealed hypospermatogenesis (HYPO) in 6 men, maturation arrest (MA) in 5, and Sertoli cell-only (SCO) in 6. Overall, presence of spermatozoa in the ejaculates was achieved in 47\% (8/17) of men after varicocele repair, but only 35\% (6/17) of them had motile sperm in their ejaculates. Only men with testicular histology revealing HYPO (5/6) or maturation arrest (3/5) had improvement after surgery. Median (25\%-75\% percentile) postoperative motile sperm count for both groups were 0.9 x 10(6)/mL (0.1-1.8 x 10(6)/mL) and 0.7 x 10(6)/mL (0.1-1.1), respectively (p = 0.87). The mean time for appearance of spermatozoa in the ejaculates was 5 months (3 to 9 months). One (HYPO) of 8 (12.5\%) men who improved after surgery contributed to an unassisted pregnancy. Postoperative testicular biopsies obtained from patients who had no improvement after surgery revealed that testicular histology diagnosis remained unchanged. Successful testicular sperm retrieval for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was achieved in 4 of 9 (44.4\%) individuals who did not improve after surgery, including 1 man with testicular histology exhibiting SCO. CONCLUSIONS: Microsurgical varicocele repair in nonobstructive azoospermic men with clinical varicoceles can result in sperm appearance in the ejaculate when hypospermatogenesis or maturation arrest is found on testicular histology diagnosis.
This article was published in Int Braz J Urol
and referenced in Andrology-Open Access