Author(s): May JM, Qu ZC, Neel DR, Li X
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Abstract Endothelial cells encounter oxidant stress due to their location in the vascular wall, and because they generate reactive nitrogen species. Because ascorbic acid is likely involved in the antioxidant defenses of these cells, we studied the mechanisms by which cultures of EA.hy926 endothelial cells recycle the vitamin from its oxidized forms. Cell lysates reduced the ascorbate free radical (AFR) by both NADH- and NADPH-dependent mechanisms. Most NADH-dependent AFR reduction occurred in the particulate fraction of the cells. NADPH-dependent reduction resembled that due to NADH in having a high affinity for the AFR, but was mediated largely by thioredoxin reductase. Reduction of dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) required GSH and was both direct and enzyme dependent. The latter was saturable, half-maximal at 100 microM DHA, and comparable to rates of AFR reduction. Loading cells to ascorbate concentrations of 0.3-1.6 mM generated intracellular DHA concentrations of 20-30 microM, indicative of oxidant stress in culture. Whereas high-affinity AFR reduction is the initial and likely the preferred mechanism of ascorbate recycling, any DHA that accumulates during oxidant stress will be reduced by GSH-dependent mechanisms.
This article was published in Biochim Biophys Acta
and referenced in Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy