alexa Redox paradox: insulin action is facilitated by insulin-stimulated reactive oxygen species with multiple potential signaling targets.
Diabetes & Endocrinology

Diabetes & Endocrinology

Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism

Author(s): Goldstein BJ, Mahadev K, Wu X

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Propelled by the identification of a small family of NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzyme homologs that produce superoxide in response to cellular stimulation with various growth factors, renewed interest has been generated in characterizing the signaling effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in relation to insulin action. Two key observations made >30 years ago-that oxidants can facilitate or mimic insulin action and that H(2)O(2) is generated in response to insulin stimulation of its target cells-have led to the hypothesis that ROS may serve as second messengers in the insulin action cascade. Specific molecular targets of insulin-induced ROS include enzymes whose signaling activity is modified via oxidative biochemical reactions, leading to enhanced insulin signal transduction. These positive responses to cellular ROS may seem "paradoxical" because chronic exposure to relatively high levels of ROS have also been associated with functional beta-cell impairment and the chronic complications of diabetes. The best-characterized molecular targets of ROS are the protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) because these important signaling enzymes require a reduced form of a critical cysteine residue for catalytic activity. PTPs normally serve as negative regulators of insulin action via the dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor and its tyrosine-phosphorylated cellular substrates. However, ROS can rapidly oxidize the catalytic cysteine of target PTPs, effectively blocking their enzyme activity and reversing their inhibitory effect on insulin signaling. Among the cloned Nox homologs, we have recently provided evidence that Nox4 may mediate the insulin-stimulated generation of cellular ROS and is coupled to insulin action via the oxidative inhibition of PTP1B, a PTP known to be a major regulator of the insulin signaling cascade. Further characterization of the molecular components of this novel signaling cascade, including the mechanism of ROS generated by insulin and the identification of various oxidation-sensitive signaling targets in insulin-sensitive cells, may provide a novel means of facilitating insulin action in states of insulin resistance.
This article was published in Diabetes and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords