alexa Region-specific neuropeptide Y overflows at rest and during sympathetic activation in humans.
Medicine

Medicine

Internal Medicine: Open Access

Author(s): Morris MJ, Cox HS, Lambert GW, Kaye DM, Jennings GL,

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Abstract Neuropeptide Y coexists with norepinephrine in sympathetic nerves and is coreleased into the circulation on sympathetic activation. Little is known about the regional release of neuropeptide Y in humans under normal conditions or in pathophysiological situations of sympathetic activation or denervation. We measured plasma neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity and norepinephrine concentrations in samples taken from the brachial artery; coronary sinus; and internal jugular, antecubital, or hepatic veins in volunteers aged 20 to 64 years. Regional neuropeptide Y overflow at rest was calculated from venoarterial plasma concentration differences and plasma flow, and norepinephrine spillover was determined by [3H]norepinephrine infusion techniques. Cardiac release of neuropeptide Y and norepinephrine was examined in response to various stressors as well as in clinical models of sympathetic activation, cardiac failure, and denervation after cardiac transplantation. In healthy volunteers, cardiac, forearm, and jugular venous sample neuropeptide Y concentrations were similar to arterial levels. Hepatic vein plasma neuropeptide Y was greater than arterial both at rest (119 +/- 5\% of arterial, n = 7) and after a meal (132 +/- 12\%, n = 7), with neuropeptide Y overflows of 6 +/- 2 and 11 +/- 2 pmol/min, respectively. In contrast, hepatomesenteric norepinephrine spillover was not significantly increased by feeding. Although coronary sinus plasma norepinephrine concentrations increased significantly with the cardiac sympathetic activation accompanying mental arithmetic, coffee drinking, isotonic exercise, and bicycle exercise, only the latter powerful sympathetic stimulus increased neuropeptide Y overflow. Cardiac failure was associated with increased resting release of both norepinephrine and neuropeptide Y from the heart, whereas postcardiac transplant norepinephrine spillover from the heart was reduced. The net overflow of neuropeptide Y to plasma observed at rest across the hepatic circulation, but not the cardiac, forearm, or cerebral circulations, indicates that the gut, the liver, or both make a major contribution to systemic plasma neuropeptide Y levels in humans. Sympathetic activation by exercise produced a modest increase in cardiac neuropeptide Y overflow but to only approximately 25\% of the resting input from the gut and without a change in arterial neuropeptide Y concentration. Plasma neuropeptide Y measurements are less sensitive than those of plasma norepinephrine concentrations as an index for quantifying sympathetic neural responses regulating the systemic circulation.
This article was published in Hypertension and referenced in Internal Medicine: Open Access

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