Author(s): Westbrook P, Bednarczyk EM, Carlson M, Sheehan H, Bissada NF
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Abstract Patients with nifedipine-induced gingival hyperplasia (GH) often require continued calcium channel blocker therapy. Switches to diltiazem and verapamil have been described; however, these drugs are of a different chemical class and present therapeutic limitations in some patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on nifedipine-induced GH of a switch to a dihydropyridine derivative with a low incidence of GH. Fourteen patients with nifedipine-induced GH were given a medical exam and a periodontal exam. The following parameters were assessed: probing depth (PD), gingival margin (GM), gingival thickness (GT), plaque index (PI), and gingival index (GI). Intraoral photographs, study models, and a gingival biopsy for histological examination were taken. Following baseline measures, patients were randomized to continued treatment with nifedipine or an equivalent dose of isradipine in a single-blind fashion. Biweekly periodontal parameters were taken for 8 weeks. At the end of 8 weeks, some patients elected to receive 4 weeks of open label isradipine therapy, with biweekly examination continuing through the open label phase. The isradipine treatment arm showed a mean decrease in PD of 0.59 mm at week 8 (P < 0.05). No other measured parameter (GM, GT, PI, GI) was significantly changed, compared either to baseline or to the alternate treatment arm. Clinically, 60\% of patients treated with isradipine exhibited a decrease in hyperplasia, while 66\% of patients treated with nifedipine demonstrated an increase in hyperplasia, a significant difference (P < 0.05). When combined with open label data, patients switching therapy to isradipine exhibited an increase in GM (increase in recession) of 0.74 mm from baseline to week 12 (P < 0.05). No patients treated with isradipine exhibited an increase in gingival overgrowth. All patients exhibited adequate control of hypertension. We conclude that in hypertensive patients with nifedipine-induced GH, switching hypertensive therapy to isradipine may result in a regression of GH. When coupled with aggressive oral hygiene treatment, this drug may provide a reasonable option for patients requiring dihydropyridine treatment.
This article was published in J Periodontol
and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy