Author(s): Wang N, Tall AR
Abstract Share this page
Abstract ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) plays a major role in cholesterol homeostasis and HDL metabolism. ABCA1 mediates cellular cholesterol and phospholipid efflux to lipid-poor apolipoproteins, and upregulation of ABCA1 activity is antiatherogenic. ApoA-I, the major apolipoprotein component of HDL, promotes ABCA1-mediated cholesterol and phospholipid efflux, probably by directly binding to ABCA1. ABCA1 gene expression is markedly increased in cholesterol-loaded cells as a result of activation of LXR/RXR. ABCA1 protein turnover is rapid. ABCA1 contains a PEST--proline (P), glutamate (E), serine (S), and threonine (T)--sequence in the intracellular segment that mediates ABCA1 degradation by a thiol protease, calpain. ApoA-I and apoE stabilize ABCA1 in a novel mode of regulation by decreasing PEST sequence-mediated calpain proteolysis. ABCA1-mediated cholesterol and phospholipid efflux are distinctly regulated and affected by the activity of other gene products. Stearyol CoA desaturase decreases ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux but not phospholipid efflux, likely by decreasing the cholesterol pool available to ABCA1. This and other evidence suggest that ABCA1 promotes cholesterol and phospholipid efflux, probably by directly transporting both lipids as substrates.
This article was published in Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol
and referenced in Internal Medicine: Open Access