Author(s): Prada AE, Zahedi K, Davis AE rd
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Abstract The primary biologic roles of C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) are the regulation of activation of the classical complement pathway and of the contact system of kinin formation. Heterozygosity for deficiency or dysfunction of C1-INH results in hereditary angioedema (HAE). This deficiency results in loss of homeostasis with unregulated complement and contact system activation. Due to the consequent C1-INH consumption, plasma levels of C1-INH in patients with HAE are decreased below 50\% of normal. In addition, diminished synthesis contributes to the lowered levels in some patients. The hepatocyte is the primary source of C1-INH, although a number of other cell types, including peripheral blood monocytes, microglial cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, the placenta, and megakaryocytes also synthesize and secrete the protein both in vivo and in vitro. Interferon-gamma and alpha (IFN), colony stimulating factor-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) all induce C1-INH synthesis in a variety of cell types. The IFN-response elements in the 5'-flanking region and in the first intron have been partially characterized, as have several of the promoter elements that direct basal transcription of the gene. However, although androgen therapy, in vivo, results in an increase in C1-INH plasma levels, a direct effect of androgens on C1-INH synthesis has not been convincingly demonstrated. Although the C1-INH gene contains a potential glucocorticoid/androgen response element, this element does not appear to respond to androgen. Continued analysis of the transcriptional regulation of the C1-INH gene may lead to new approaches to therapy of HAE.
This article was published in Immunobiology
and referenced in Journal of Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases