alexa Regulation of gene expression by cell-to-cell communication: acyl-homoserine lactone quorum sensing.
Microbiology

Microbiology

Clinical Microbiology: Open Access

Author(s): Fuqua C, Parsek MR, Greenberg EP

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Abstract Quorum sensing is an example of community behavior prevalent among diverse bacterial species. The term "quorum sensing" describes the ability of a microorganism to perceive and respond to microbial population density, usually relying on the production and subsequent response to diffusible signal molecules. A significant number of gram-negative bacteria produce acylated homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs) as signal molecules that function in quorum sensing. Bacteria that produce acyl-HSLs can respond to the local concentration of the signaling molecules, and high population densities foster the accumulation of inducing levels of acyl-HSLs. Depending upon the bacterial species, the physiological processes regulated by quorum sensing are extremely diverse, ranging from bioluminescence to swarming motility. Acyl-HSL quorum sensing has become a paradigm for intercellular signaling mechanisms. A flurry of research over the past decade has led to significant understanding of many aspects of quorum sensing including the synthesis of acyl-HSLs, the receptors that recognize the acyl-HSL signal and transduce this information to the level of gene expression, and the interaction of these receptors with the transcriptional machinery. Recent studies have begun to integrate acyl-HSL quorum sensing into global regulatory networks and establish its role in developing and maintaining the structure of bacterial communities. This article was published in Annu Rev Genet and referenced in Clinical Microbiology: Open Access

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