Author(s): Markovic M, Miljkovic Dj, Trajkovic V
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Abstract Among the numerous genes controlled by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A signalling machinery is the gene encoding the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), an enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of a highly reactive free radical nitric oxide (NO). While being a major microbicidal and tumoricidal molecule, iNOS-derived NO has also been implicated in tissue destruction, as well as in regulation of inflammatory/immune cell function in various disorders associated with excessive inflammation. A feasible way for cAMP-dependent therapeutic control of inflammation, including iNOS-mediated NO synthesis, could involve the administration of drugs that block the enzymatic activity of cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterases (PDE). Indeed, cAMP-elevating PDE inhibitors can influence iNOS activation in different cell types in vitro, and their potent anti-inflammatory effects in experimental disease models and clinical studies were frequently accompanied with profound modulation of NO production. A set of conflicting data has been generated over the years, ranging from strong suppression to marked enhancement of NO release by cAMP-increasing PDE inhibitors, depending on cell-type, iNOS stimuli, and/or the agents used. The present review summarizes the data on iNOS modulation by cAMP-elevating PDE inhibitors and possible mechanisms behind it, speculating on its contribution to the therapeutic effects of these drugs.
This article was published in Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research