Author(s): Jafarnejad SM, Li G
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Abstract The INhibitor of Growth (ING) family is an evolutionarily conserved set of proteins, implicated in suppression of initiation and progression of cancers in various tissues. They promote cell cycle arrest, cellular senescence and apoptosis, participate in stress responses, regulate DNA replication and DNA damage responses, and inhibit cancer cell migration, invasion, and angiogenesis of the tumors. At the molecular level, ING proteins are believed to participate in chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation of their target genes. However, the best known function of ING proteins is their cooperation with p53 tumor suppressor protein in tumor suppression. All major isoforms of ING family members can promote the transactivition of p53 and the majority of them are shown to directly interact with p53. In addition, ING proteins are thought to interact with and modulate the function of auxiliary members of p53 pathway, such as MDM2, ARF , p300, and p21, indicating their widespread involvement in the regulation and function of this prominent tumor suppressor pathway. It seems that p53 pathway is the main mechanism by which ING proteins exert their functions. Nevertheless, regulation of other pathways which are not relevant to p53, yet important for tumorigenesis such as TGF-β and NF-κB, by ING proteins is also observed. This review summarizes the current understanding of the mutual interactions and cooperation between different members of ING family with p53 pathway and implications of this cooperation in the suppression of cancer initiation and progression.
This article was published in Cancer Metastasis Rev
and referenced in Gene Technology