Author(s): Shu L, Lee L, Shayman JA
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Abstract Glycosphingolipid-enriched domains are hot spots for cell signaling within plasma membranes and are characterized by the enrichment of glycosphingolipids. A role for glucosylceramide-based glycosphingolipids in phospholipase C-mediated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation has been previously documented. These earlier studies utilized a first generation glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor to deplete cells of their glycosphingolipids. Recently, more active and specific glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors, including d-threo-ethylendioxyphenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-pyrrolidinopropanol (d-t-EtDO-P4), have been designed. d-t-EtDO-P4 has the advantage of blocking glucosylceramide synthase at low nanomolar concentrations but does not cause secondary elevations in cell ceramide levels. In the present study, d-t-EtDO-P4 depleted cellular glucosylceramide and lactosylceramide in cultured ECV304 cells at nanomolar concentrations without obvious cellular toxicity. The expression of several signaling proteins was evaluated in glycosphingolipid-depleted ECV304 cells to study the role of glycosphingolipids in phospholipase C-mediated signaling. No difference was observed in the cellular expression of phospholipase C-gamma between controls and glycolipid-depleted cells. Western blot analysis, however, revealed that depletion of endogenous glycosphingolipids in cultured ECV304 cells with d-t-EtDO-P4 induced tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma in a concentration-dependent manner with maximum induction at 100 nm. The phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma induced by d-t-EtDO-P4 was abolished by exogenously added glucosylceramide, consistent with a specific glycosphingolipid-phospholipase C-gamma interaction. The phospholipase C-gamma phosphorylation was maximally enhanced by bradykinin when cells were exposed to 100 nm d-t-EtDO-P4. The measurement of cellular activity of phospholipase C-gamma, by myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate radioreceptor assay, demonstrated that depletion of glucosylceramide-based glycosphingolipids in cultured ECV304 cells with d-t-EtDO-P4 resulted in significantly increased formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate above base line, and an increased sensitivity of phospholipase C-gamma to bradykinin stimulation. Thus, the activation of phospholipase C-gamma is negatively regulated by membrane glycosphingolipids in ECV304 cells.
This article was published in J Biol Chem
and referenced in Journal of Glycomics & Lipidomics