Author(s): PerezLeal O, Merali S, PerezLeal O, Merali S
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Abstract Polyamines are low molecular weight, positively charged compounds that are ubiquitous in all living cells. They play a crucial role in many biochemical processes including regulation of transcription and translation, modulation of enzyme activities, regulation of ion channels and apoptosis. A strict balance between synthesis, catabolism and excretion tightly controls the cellular concentration of polyamines. The concentrations of rate-limiting enzymes in the polyamine synthesis and degradation pathways are regulated at different levels, including transcription, translation and degradation. Polyamines can modulate the translation of most of the enzymes required for their synthesis and catabolism through feedback mechanisms that are unique for each enzyme. Translational control is associated with cis-acting and trans-acting factors that can be influenced by the concentration of polyamines through mechanisms that are not completely understood. In this review, we present an overview of the translational control mechanisms of the proteins in the polyamine pathway, including ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), ODC antizyme, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase and spermidine/spermine N(1) acetyltransferase, highlighting the areas where more research is needed. A better understanding of the translational control of these enzymes would offer the possibility of a novel pharmacological intervention against cancer and other diseases.
This article was published in Amino Acids
and referenced in Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research