Author(s): Maesaka JK, Fishbane S
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Abstract Uric acid metabolism is reviewed as it relates mainly to kidney and electrolyte disorders, with emphasis on the difficulties in understanding urate transport because of its bidirectional transport and the species differences in which animal data may not have relevance to the human condition. A critical review of the effects of pyrazinamide and extracellular volume expansion on urate transport raises questions about the current popular teachings that pyrazinamide exclusively blocks tubule urate secretion and extracellular volume expansion has a major role in controlling urate excretion. There appears to be a renal salt-wasting syndrome with overlapping clinical features that make it indistinguishable from the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), except possibly for extracellular volume depletion. Hypouricemia and the elevation in the fractional excretion of urate (\%E/Furate) are extensively reviewed with a proposal to use the persistence of hypouricemia and elevated \%E/Furate after the correction of hyponatremia to differentiate these patients from those with SIADH. An algorithm is proposed to differentiate one group from the other. A plasma natriuretic factor has been shown in some with probable renal salt wasting, which includes patients with AIDS, cancer, and pulmonary and intracranial diseases. The natriuretic factor may have etiologic implications and diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
This article was published in Am J Kidney Dis
and referenced in Medical & Surgical Urology