Author(s): Daniel M, Peek GW, Tollefsbol TO, Daniel M, Peek GW, Tollefsbol TO
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Abstract Over the past decade, there has been much interest in the regulation of telomerase, the enzyme responsible for maintaining the integrity of chromosomal ends, and its crucial role in cellular immortalization, tumorigenesis, and the progression of cancer. Telomerase activity is characterized by the expression of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene, suggesting that TERT serves as the major limiting agent for telomerase activity. Recent discoveries have led to characterization of various interactants that aid in the regulation of human TERT (hTERT), including numerous transcription factors; further supporting the pivotal role that transcription plays in both the expression and repression of telomerase. Several studies have suggested that epigenetic modulation of the hTERT core promoter region may provide an additional level of regulation. Although these studies have provided essential information on the regulation of hTERT, there has been ambiguity of the role of methylation within the core promoter region and the subsequent binding of various activating and repressive agents. As a result, we found it necessary to consolidate and summarize these recent developments and elucidate these discrepancies. In this review, we focus on the co-regulation of hTERT via transcriptional regulation, the presence or absence of various activators and repressors, as well as the epigenetic pathways of DNA methylation and histone modifications. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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This article was published in Gene
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Pathology