Author(s): Ahrn B
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Abstract It has been demonstrated that nerve fibres storing immunoreactivity of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, peptide histidine iso-leucine, neuropeptide Y, substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, galanin, and cholecystokinin exists in the thyroid, though the content of these neuropeptides is lower in the thyroid than in other organs, like in the gut. Furthermore, the parafollicular C-cells have been shown to harbour several different peptides: calcitonin, somatostatin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, gastrin-releasing peptide, katacalcin and helodermin. In addition, other regulatory peptides like atrial natriuretic hormone, growth factors, and cytokines are also produced in the thyroid. This review summarizes today's knowledge on the effects of these peptides on thyroid hormone secretion and their possible role in thyroid physiology. So far, functional studies have failed to establish any convincing effect of substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, galanin and cholecystokinin on basal or TSH-stimulated thyroid hormone secretion. In contrast, vasoactive intestinal peptide has convincingly been demonstrated to stimulate thyroid hormone secretion, and neuropeptide Y to potentiate the inhibitory action of noradrenaline on TSH-induced thyroid hormone secretion. This suggests that these two neuropeptides are involved in the intrathyroidal neural regulation of thyroid function. Moreover, the C-cell peptides somatostatin, calcitonin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and katacalcin seem to be involved as inhibitors of thyroid hormone secretion, whereas both gastrin-releasing peptide and helodermin stimulate thyroid hormone secretion. Atrial natriuretic hormone and growth factors, and cytokines seem to inhibit thyroid hormone secretion. Hence, studies undertaken so far suggest a local intrathyroidal peptidergic regulatory concept, the exact role of which remains to be established.
This article was published in Acta Endocrinol (Copenh)
and referenced in Journal of Cytology & Histology
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