Author(s): Freeman GJ, Wherry EJ, Ahmed R, Sharpe AH
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Abstract The programmed death (PD)-1-PD-1 ligand (PD-L) pathway, which is part of the B7-CD28 family, consists of the PD-1 receptor and its two ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2. Engagement of PD-1 by its ligands inhibits immune responses, and recent work has shown that PD-1 is highly expressed on exhausted T cells during chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection in mice. Blockade of this pathway reinvigorates the exhausted T cells, allowing them to expand and produce effector cytokines, raising the issue of whether this pathway has been exploited by a variety of viruses during chronic infection. New studies now extend these observations to HIV infection and human disease.
This article was published in J Exp Med
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology