Author(s): Presti P, Yalamanchili H, Honrado CP
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Abstract Age-related changes to the upper third of the face manifest, typically, as brow ptosis and the development of deep skin furrows. Depression of the brow evolves as gravity and the action of the corrugator supercilli, procerus, and orbicularis draw on the progressively inelastic forehead skin. Facial mimetic muscle action reveals itself over time via the development of deep forehead rhytids. Facial plastic surgeons have at their disposal several effective surgical, and recently, medical interventions to address these changes. Each technique has merits and suitable applications. This review examines the history of rejuvenation of the upper face, details the pertinent treatment modalities, and evaluates the context in which each is applicable.
This article was published in Facial Plast Surg
and referenced in Reconstructive Surgery & Anaplastology